By John M. Lipski

The negros congos of Panama's Caribbean coast are a different cultural manifestation of Afro-Hispanic touch. in the course of Carnival season every year, this team reenacts dramatic occasions which affected black slaves in colonial Panama, plays dances and pantomimes, and enforces a suite of formality legislation' and punishments'. A key component to congo video games is a distinct dialect, the hablar en congos, that is hired via a subset of the congos in each one cost. the current examine investigates the congo dialect from a linguistic viewpoint alongside dimensions. the 1st comprises planned phonetic, syntactic, and semantic distortion as a part of the final spirit of of burlesque and mock that surrounds Panamanian Carnival. the second one is the retention of past, in part creolized Afro-Hispanic language kinds that may nonetheless be extracted from modern congo speech. those Afro-Hispanic vestiges are of key significance to monogenetic theories of Afro-Romance creolization as Panamanian congo speech presents examples of detailed creolized Spanish.

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